Political Participation Worksheet

Political Participation Worksheet

Student’s Name

Institutional Affiliation

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Professor’s Name


Response to the Questions

Question 1

A major difference between Temporal and permanent party structures in Texas is that permanent party is managed by a lesser set of party faithful chosen by the provisional party structure who perform regular but significant party operations between and in the course of elections. On the other hand, the temporal party organization comprises many organized party devotees involved in selecting applicants and mobilizing voter support in primary and general voting operations to gain political power. A temporary structure is established by conventions of party followers done successively at district, precinct, or county state levels combined with statewide elections every two years (Von, 2020). Precincts are so significant since they consist of the citizens, who have supremacy in their votes. Prosperous political affairs, as a result, needs a precinct body. Political parties that do not have operational local structure risk being removed from the electorate and losing elections.

Question 2

Interest groups are so powerful in Texas because Texas was known to have weak political parties for most of the twentieth century. Texas history of one-party political affairs left the political parties weak, making the interest group powerful. Interest groups appear to have bigger influences in states where political parties are somehow weaker. Interest groups impact policy in a way that those representing business actively contribute and campaign economically to the selection of adjudicators satisfactory to their interests (Box et al., 2019). They raise awareness of public affairs majorly by creating and disseminating those policy positions they approve of and by conflicting those they consider threats to their fellows’ welfares. When well-defined glass lobbying signifies an effort to indirectly influence a public official or through an organization or an individual who beseeches another to convey a dispatch to a Public Official, it is also an effort to influence legislation.   

Question 3

Several types of primaries are used in Texas. It signifies an election used either to decide the contenders for political parties before the general election or to narrow the contenders’ field for a particular elective office. State law controls most features of primary elections, and local election administrators are mainly in charge of administering them. Below are the types of primaries used in Texas:

Closed Primary: Individuals might only vote in a particular party if they are registered affiliates of that party before Voting Day. People who are independents cannot take part.

Semi-closed: Those members who are registered can elect in their party’s primary. It also permits unaffiliated voters to partake as well. 

Open primary: In this type, registered individuals may vote in any party primary despite their party membership.  

Semi-open: A listed voter requires not openly assert which political party’s primary they will vote for before entering the voting booth.

Primaries are not used for all elections in Texas. The other polls used include runoff, general, and special elections. 

Question 4

Campaigning in the office is so difficult in Texas. It is tough to win big political elections without a lot of money. Election campaigns require considerable expenses, including political consulting, travel costs of candidates and staff, and advertising. The requirement to raise cash to keep up costly political campaigns reduces connections to a representative democracy because of the impact great givers have over politicians. Another thing is that state law in Texas prohibits a contender from receiving financial support from a contributor in a reporting period party-political aids in cash that totals more than $100. The main advantage of incumbents in elections is that for many party-political offices, the incumbent frequently has more name acknowledgment as a result of their preceding work in the office. In addition, incumbents also have easier access to campaign funding, in addition to government assets that can be indirectly used to increase the incumbent’s re-election campaign. They have an advantage because they get casework, name recognition, campaign financing, and typically redistricting on their side.

Question 5

Income, education, and age are significant variables when it comes to voting. Identification and interest in politics are also strong signs that an individual in Texas is more likely to vote. Voter turnout in Texas has continuously been lower than the turnout nationally. The main reasons voters’ turnout in Texas is so low is that compared to other states, Texas age distribution is younger, income levels are lower, and educational attainment levels are below average (Grant et al, 2020). Most of the individuals don’t feel educated enough. Some do not like any of the candidates. Other factors include broken promises, transportation inconveniences, and jury duty. This is an issue with democracy since individuals with lower income, are young, and less educated most unlikely to participate in voting. 

Some changes ought to be made to increase participation. First, the government should remove barricades of registering to vote, and improvements need to be executed to enable all eligible individuals. They also need to make voting more convenient with no-excuse absentee voting, in-person early voting, and vote-at-home with vote centers. The administration requires to give enough resources in elections and making sure voting is accessible. Rights also need to be restored for formerly incarcerated individuals. With time, the government will be more likely to make these changes.   


Box‐Steffensmeier, J. M., Christenson, D. P., & Craig, A. W. (2019). Cue‐Taking in Congress: Interest Group Signals from Dear Colleague Letters. American Journal of Political Science, 63(1), 163-180.

Grant, S., Perlman, M. D., & Grant, D. (2020). Targeted testing for bias in order assignment, with an application to Texas election ballots. Journal of Statistical Planning and Inference, 206, 12-28.

Von Koppenfels, A. K. (2020). 2 Federal structure and party politics as simultaneous opportunity and constraint. Political Parties Abroad: A New Arena for Party Politics.