Problems of modern democracy





Problems of modern democracy

The fundamental problem of all countries in the universe is maintaining of legitimacy and sovereignty in the underlying face of the internal and external pressures and constraints. Modern democratic states possess an especial problem since they mainly function within the underlying constraint of general approval. Nevertheless, there are no governments that operates within the constraint of general approval hence most are faced with barrage of public criticism and ever present threat of being dismissed from office either via a majority in a dissatisfied legislature or via an election by a discontented public. Therefore, democratic politicians are normally extremely sensitive to public opinion and representative democracy does not need them to put in place specific policy to the electorate (Swanson, 99-154). Democracy is a massive evolution in regard to the form of the societal power as it advances the underlying norm through the human history of feudalism with the rights for numerous citizens. This paper seeks to explore the problems that are associated with modern democracy form of administration.

According to political theory, Democracy mainly describes an insignificant number of associated systems of government and political philosophy. It is purely based on the philosophical principle of equivalent rights, a common feature of democracy presently practiced in competitive elections (Eagles, 89-145). Democracy has actual limitation for the existing global power since it demands unreasonably elevated levels of concern by the underlying masses in regard to populace with massive interest in society exploration and conquering but results to little effects to most of the prevailing citizens. Democratic systems mainly follow majority regulation even though numerous democratic systems do no observe sternly to representative democracy. This is because direct democracy coupled with minority rights are frequently safeguarded from dictatorship of the popular. A fixation on unity normally diverts attention from the prevailing knowledge of problems of democracy (Swanson, 99-154). Fixation is defined as a status of intellectuals in modernity that makes it cumbersome to comprehend the creation, negotiation and utilizes public knowledge to divert attention from the behaviors of experts and corresponding expert fields within public life.

Democracy enhances mediocre leadership since leaders within a democracy constantly court the favor of the prevailing populace to stay in power. Within democratic systems the premium for successful leadership put on popularity with underlying masses rather than on the wisdom and training, and most popular leaders are like ordinary citizens thus not outstanding. Moreover, in democracy leaders pander to the underlying wishes of the electorate rather than doing what is right. Thus, democratic leaders mainly focus on the short-term objectives rather than long-term requirements of society. It is extremely cumbersome to get any leader within a democratic system who can deal forthrightly with long-term policies. Moreover, democracies have an inbuilt tendency of spending more than they earn by giving populace what they want in the present and letting the underlying cost be paid by future generations.

Democratic political debates are more superficial and mainly focus less on the substantive issues hence known as image politics. These image politics normally dominate electoral process and mainly concentrate on the appearance of a leader rather than a gender. Society that focus mostly on the images at the expense of real issues are easy prey to manipulation by those politicians that are interested in winning arguments via manipulation of the underlying beliefs. Modern democracies are susceptible to unrestrained development and a factionalism of the corresponding competing special interests mainly seeking to influence leaders in order to fulfill individual desires rather than the desires of the people. Democracy does not regard total majority rule since the right of the underlying majority is mainly controlled by either the existing constitution or corresponding pattern that is decided by the earlier generations. Moreover, real power in the democracy is held by comparatively lesser representative body (Pinterič & Lea, 67-112). Therefore, liberty democracy is simply a decoration over the corresponding oligarchy. Unmoderated majority rule that is normally fostered by democracy result to an oppression of minorities.

Democracy is seen as unproductive form of government commonly called as an irrational dogma because it solely flourishes on nepotism. For instance, utmost catastrophe of democracy is seen in after World War when there was upsurge and development of robust totalitarianism in Nazism and Fascism (Eagles, 89-145). Democracy party system within the states was extremely strong within a democracy that consequently resulted to endless unprofitable scuffle amidst political parties criticizing each party on fundamental topics and bad speaking each other within the media to try and mobilize public judgment. This also led to unnecessary intrusion with the underlying smooth operation of the government (Braun, 145-234). Moreover, democracy makes parties to focus more on the vote gathering perceptions at the expense of real content within the campaigns.

Democracy is also depicted as an affluent form of government as election campaigns in the modern world scenarios accrue to millions thereby resulting to lofty cost of administration. According to Marxists, socialists and corresponding left-wing anarchists, liberal democracy is mainly an integral section of the underlying capitalist system that is class-based and is neither self-governing nor participatory. Thus, democracy is merely a bourgeois democracy where politicians struggle for their individual rights hence making it essentially autocratic as it facilitates economic corruption (Eagles, 99-156). Moreover, the underlying cost of political campaigning in regard to representative democracies favors the prevailing affluent a form of plutocracy where an extremely small minority takes part.

Modern democracy is also seen as a deceitful circus utilized to keep the underlying masses from comprehending that their prevailing is extraneous within the political process. This is because there are always conspiracies in the process of developing twitchy for the political agenda. Candidates normally make deals with the corresponding wealthy followers by offering auspicious legislation in case they win thereby continuing conspiracies for domination of fundamental locations (Pinterič & Lea, 67-112). Thus, campaign finance restructuring is seen as the main attempt to correct the underlying recognize problem of democracy.

Democracy is always marred by low over turnout that occurs due to the disenchantment, indifference and contentment with the underlying status quo particularly if there are disproportionate segments of the population (Braun, 145-234). Even though low turnout levels normally vary massively among the prevailing modern democratic states within different kind and levels of the elections, low turnout might prompt to questions as to whether the results of elections depicts the will of the citizens (Kane, 89-123). Democracy is normally faced by an issue of bureaucracy since it enhance the elected representatives to alter the law without taking into consideration necessity thus enacting new laws, which is malicious in numerous ways. New laws normally constrict the scope of the earlier liberty thus making it cumbersome for an eager non-specialist to continue being law abiding. This might consequently leads to invitation for law implementation agencies that may misuse power, which is contrary to the simple and eternal natural law. Moreover, multifaceted bureaucracy and guidelines leads to dictatorships due to the sluggishness and difficulty of decision making.

Liberal democracy designates non concentration of power, which is a disadvantage for any country during wartime that requires fast and combined response. Prevailing legislature must grant consent prior to the commencement of any offensive military operation even though executives can carry out then inform the legislature (Pinterič & Lea, 118-167). In case democracy is attacked then there is no consent that is normally demanded for the defensive operation since populace can vote against the underlying conscription army. This might led to enforcement of monarchy and dictatorships which is bad for any government.

There is a complex problem in disentangling the association amidst democracy and economy as democracy mainly inclined toward peace. This normally makes it cumbersome to foster economic development via securing well-defined property rights, decreasing social endogenous improbability, hindrance of wars unless they correspond to the underlying will of populace and offering economic protection for the worst off. Democracy also possesses higher cost that is the cost of democracy comes with the cost of modern and efficient welfare state. Relative low level of participation possesses low cost of democracy whilst the corresponding disunity of populace in regard to violence and social disorder is high. Increased political participation escalates cost of democracy and benefits lower disunity to people with social disorder.

Modern democracy results to problem in regard to the government rise which is normally viewed as a fundamental paradox. Technological developments normally results in ecological retreats that consequently results to uncertain social change and economic advancement. Thus, future generation night suffer from the policies that mainly benefits the current generations. Moreover, it is also cumbersome to make viable examinations since results of diverse policies in modern democracies are not apparently concurrent. The resultant effect of environmental change is dangerous.

The fundamental problem modern democracies in the universe entail maintaining of legitimacy and sovereignty in the underlying face of the internal and external pressures and constraints. Modern democratic states possess an especial problem since they mainly function within the underlying constraint of general approval. Democracy possesses numerous drawbacks that hamper its effectiveness (Braun, 145-234). The glaring problems of democracy are operation on tyranny of numbers, corruption, bureaucracy and dictatorship. Liberal democracy foster for non-concentration of power, which is a disadvantage for any country during wartime that requires fast and combined response. Nevertheless, democracy offers the institutional background that aids in settling of nonviolently conflicts. It also aid in solving concentration of undependable power by intentionally preventing from becoming treacherous. Government ought to either reconstruct viable societies along the underlying democratic lines in order to receive active support of the prevailing majority (Eagles, 89-145). This will aid in preventing the problems of democracy such as corruption, bureaucracy and dictatorship. Nevertheless, majority of countries within the universe presently use the democratic form of government.

Work Cited

Eagles, Munroe. Politics: An Introduction to Democratic Government. Peterborough, Ont: Broadview Press, 2008.

Pinterič, Uroš, & Lea Prijon. Selected Issues of Modern Democracy. Ljubljana: Vega, 2012.

Braun, Jerome. To Break Our Chains: Social Cohesiveness and Modern Democracy. Leiden: Brill, 2011.

Kane, Robert. Through the Moral Maze: Searching for Absolute Values in a Pluralistic World. Armonk, N.Y: North Castle Books, 1996.

Swanson, David L. Politics, Media and Modern Democracy: An International Study of Innovations in Electoral Campaigning and Their Consequences. Westport, Conn. [u.a.: Praeger, 1996.