Racial construct

Racial constructRace is a social construct as according to sociologists, race is not based on some innate as well as immutable scientific facts, but instead, a social construct is used to describe the racial categories such as Asians, blacks and whites. Race is, therefore, a category that tends to group together people with similar or who share biological traits believed by the society to be socially significant. The shared traits do not only involve the biological traits but also the people’s understanding of the biological differences as shaped by the culture which they are associated.

A clinal variation refers to the gradual change in an inherited characteristic across a geographical range of species that are usually correlated with an environmental transition that include latitude, moisture, and temperature. Clinal variations makes more sense and helps understand better the difference in groups of people in that it helps define race as a social construct in different geographical regions, for example, a black person in Sudan cannot be categorized the same as that black person in Australia, as they are two geographically different regions with different characteristics in regard to temperature, moisture and latitude hence there has evolved a gradual change in the inherited characteristics among the people involved.

Walker, Spohn, and DeLone described three major types of discrimination that exists within the criminal justice practices, which include; race, ethnicity, and gender bias. Examples include, for racial discrimination, blacks are prone to incarceration than other races, regarding ethnicity include African Americans arrested disproportionately for violent crimes while whites are arrested for burglaries and violent crimes. Gender bias involves the disproportionate arrest of men who commits the same crime as women.