Question 1 Critical Thinking

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Question 1: Critical Thinking

Discuss the Schneider article regarding beliefs and how it can affect our critical thinking abilities.  Consider how critical thinking can affect any law enforcement and public administration of justice issues especially considering police shootings and stereotypes. 

Our belief systems affect the way we relate and the quality of life we live. The belief system of our minds has a lot of effect in our social life and therefore even though most people disregard this notion, it is important to take care of what a person believes so that it is for their best good interest and not to harm them in any way. Schneider, talks of the belief systems and how they are developed from a young age to an old age. He says that what we accumulate at a young age is what in most times forms our belief system and makes us who we are. Therefore in this it can be concluded that the parent of a child are the ones entrusted with ensuring the believe system of their child is okay and it goes along with the values they value as basic to a human being.

Police shooting and stereotypes are issues present in our society which need to be addressed and this can be solved through changing the belief system of a people. If people keep on believing that police officers are evil people then there might be chaos but if the police officers try to change the belief system of the people it will be easier to relate to each as well as cooperate to bring peace and harmony into the society. For this to be done there must be application for critical thinking techniques of how the police will convince people that they are good people in spite of the many shootings and stereotypes created surrounding the police.

Work cited

Schneider, D. J. (2007). The Belief Machine. Cambridge University Press.Question 2: Sleep Deficit Article

How many of you can relate to this article on sleep deficit?  Are you planning on making changes to your sleep schedule after reading this article?

Sleep deficit is an issue which is being experienced by so many people of late especially with the pushing needs of the society today. According to (Czeisler, 2006), driver fatigue is one of the main causes of road accidents in America according to statistics. Between 2000 and 2005 fatigue was a cause to more than 1.35 million auto-mobile accidents. This explains how lack of sleep can cause damage to our daily lives and it is a wakeup call for people to change the lifestyles which leads to lack of adequate sleep thus suffering from the effects of lack of sleep.

This article about lack of sleep is highly related to me in so many ways. First of all being a student sometimes the workload is too much and the ability to help at home as well as study and pass is not easy. Therefore this leads to tough decision making which basically is about being able to manage everything both at home and at school. A change is always important. I am making changes to my lifestyle by engaging in a discourse with my parents to get someone help at home. I believe this will have a good impact on my life and especially the academic part.

Work cited

Czeisler, 2006, Sleep Deficit: The Performance Killer, retrieved on 16th November 2020 from

Question 3: Machine Bias Article

AI is becoming more and more intertwined in our lives and this article makes it clear there are some major ethical and societal issues going on.  What can you identify in the article that makes you consider how improvement could be made for AI to operate more ethically and with better social justice?

Technology and invention is always very important but at the same time it has to be controlled by human beings. This is because the same human beings are the ones who create it and it is their intentions which will be realized by the use of almost all the inventions and computer related programs. In the example of Borden and prater the computer program got it wrong and this is a sign of the racial discrimination being expanded even into areas of technology whereby such technology is made in a way that makes some kind of people look like thugs and able to make more mistakes than the others. The computer program made assertions that prater was not likely to get into crime while it asserted that Borden was likely to get into crime later. Prater was a white and he got into crime after a short time while borden who was a black never got into crime any other time.

From this risk scores it follows that most people had been biased upon and it was good to look into the manner in which these computer programs were being used and the question of they were acceptable in courts of law is very important to answer. Therefore this can be changed to treat everyone in an equal manner so that the results obtained can be trusted and even used for legal purposes.

Work cited

Angwin, 2016, Machine Bias, retrieved 6th November 2020 from 4: court intervention on prison administrators

What is seen as the cumulative effect of decades of court intervention on prison administrators?

Court has always been related to prisons in that it is from the courts that criminals are sentenced to imprisonment. However the relation between courts and prison administration has not always been clear. This is because focus has not been given to the issue.

With the rising number of issues in prisons there have been concerns raised on the manner of correcting the imprisoned used by prison administrators. According to Donald Specter in his book “Making Prisons Safe: Strategies for Reducing Violence” he clearly states that prisoners had become a dangerous place and the supreme court of America had called upon prison administrators to cool the violence by adopting new measures which curb violence in prisons.

Therefore it can be concluded that the relationship between prison administrators and court intervention had brought positive changes in the changing of the prisoner’s behaviors and it has reduced violence witnessed in the courts before.

Work cited

Specter, D. (2006). Making prisons safe: Strategies for reducing violence. Wash. UJL & Pol’y, 22, 125.Question 5: Middle management

What will most likely determine whether a given organization includes “middle management?”

Middle management is seen as a waste of by most small organizations while at the same time it is very much valued by big organizations. According to (Osterman,2019), senior managers are the people who make the business decisions which are most important but middle managers are involved in making decisions about the business which are also very important but they do this when they are not very visible.

“As a group, middle managers are central, indeed crucial, to an organization’s success.” (Osterman,2019). Therefore middle management is very crucial and they play a vital role in the business even though not fully recognized or distinguished from top management. The determiner of whether to include then in the running of the business lies heavily on top management but in most instances they are included. The main determiner of making this decision therefore is their role and the size of the business.

Work cited

Osterman, Paul. “Recognizing the value of middle management.” Ivey Business Journal 73.6 (2009): 7.

Question 6: Time management

Describe one practical method of dealing with those individuals who chronically arrive late for a regularly scheduled meeting.

Time management is an issue for most people and this goes a long way to determine their performance in their work or business. This is because if a person is late in the morning it turns out that they will have a poor performance during the whole day and if they are at the right place in the morning then there is a very high likelihood of them being more productive on that day than any other day.

In this regard if a person is ever late for a meeting the best thing to do is have a meeting with the people and try to understand the basic issues which they might be facing. However this is a basic thing and if after reprimanding they are not able to change and obey time it is important to take secondary stiffer measures.

One of the measures which might work best is replacing the person with another one depending on many other factors, for example if their productivity is still poor even after coming late for meetings then to give them a warning that they will be fired or they will be removed from the office they hold is a good thing because it makes them scared to lose their position therefore they obey. This has always worked with most people because the thought of them losing maybe a job position compared to their other activities is frightening and this makes them want to work even more on their time management.

Work cited

Govindarajan, G. (2010). U.S. Patent Application No. 12/660,076.Question 7: routine and unscheduled tasks

Explain the difference between routine tasks and unscheduled task.

Routine tasks tend to be at times boring because of their routinely manner of happening while tasks which do not have a routine tend to be interesting and better for the person partaking of it. According to (Kolpashnikova, 2018), the most routinely happening task in a home environment is cooking while management is regarded as non-routine or unscheduled. Some of the other unscheduled tasks include getting a surprise visit etc. Therefore routine tasks are what a person knows they will have to do at a certain time and due to this it is usually planned for. An unscheduled task is a task that is not planned for and therefore happens without the expectation or prior planning of the person it involves.

Work cited

Kolpashnikova, Kamila, and Man-Yee Kan. “Hebdomadal Patterns of Compensatory Behaviour: Weekday and Weekend Housework Participation in Canada, 1986–2010.” Work, Employment and Society 34.2 (2020): 174-192.

Question 8: complaints

When a problem or complaint is taken to an outside agency, what is the customary conclusion when appropriate documentation cannot be produced?

In this case most of the times there might be claims that since there were no documentation the problem or the issues were not valid or were not discussed and this leads to people having no evidence of what happened thus they are unable to conclusively stand for anything concerning the problem.

Complaints and problems are usually taken to third parties in search of a solution but if there is no written agreement it turns out that the offender can repeat the same issue and cause problems since they will claim there was no consensus as on how something should be done. This is due to lack of proper documentation.

Work cited

Fisher, Ron. “Methods of third-party intervention.” (2001).

Question 9: Wrongful discharge

How might a successful wrongful discharge complaint result from a manager’s employee performance evaluations?

When a manager discharges and makes an employee leave his/her job successfully even though without proper grounds for this kind of action makes the organization unable to continue to in peace and mutual understanding between the employees and the managers. This may lead to chaos in the business environment and these complaints are mostly silent and the other employees continue to watch their colleagues being mistreated and this at the end leads to poor manager-employee performance.

This is undesirable for any business environment because it leads to poor relations and makes the business performance poor.

Work cited

Witus, Morley. “Defense of Wrongful Discharge Suits Based on an Employee’s Misrepresentations.” Mich. BJ 69 (1990): 50-50.

Question 10: inflow of information

What is the most effective means of stimulating the inflow of information along your incoming channels of communication?

Information in any business or organization is a very basic and most important thing which if not managed well can lead to poor performance and at the end poor results of the business. Therefore information flow has to be managed in a good manner if there is need for business performance to remain great.

Stimulating the inflow of information is very important because the managers as well as the other people in the business environment will get the information early in time and thus be able to work on what is needed at right time without delays.

Work cited

Cavagna, Andrea, Irene Giardina, and Francesco Ginelli. “Boundary information inflow enhances correlation in flocking.” Physical review letters 110.16 (2013): 168107.

Question 11

What, if anything, is wrong with making an example of an offending employee as a lesson for other employees?

This type of punishment has always existed in so many areas of life and in the business world it has had its practice for long till now. The deterrent type of punishment makes sure that the other employees see what is done to one employee such that they will never repeat or even think of doing such kind of thing in violation of the regulations of the business. This however has been faced by many issues whereby the deterrent kind of punishment is overdone and it might lead to the violation of a person rights. Therefore this is a great weakness for this type of mistake correction.

Work cited

Thornton, Dorothy, Neil A. Gunningham, and Robert A. Kagan. “General deterrence and corporate environmental behavior.” Law & Policy 27.2 (2005): 262-288.

Question 12

What is one significant reason why careers are not stable today?

One of the main reasons why careers in this period in time are not stable is because of the varied nature of the inventions taking place as well as the needs which arise as a person grows in face of a society which is changing. The change in the societal basic manner of things happening makes careers to drift from how they used to be and it makes people experience and embrace new way of doing things. Some of these can be attributed to technology and other issues like excess amount of human resource and no employment available for them therefore leading them to think of how they will cope with the situation and through this most people change their careers.

Work cited

Savickas, Mark L. “4 Renovating the psychology of careers for the twenty-Wrst century.” The future of career (2000): 53.

Question 13

What kinds of issues is majority-employee teams legally prohibited from addressing?

The major thing which is legally forbidden to be done by labor unions and employee teams is defending a person who is clearly in the wrong. Since most employee teams tend to defend the other employees it is legally prohibited that an employee team should protect and defend an employee who is clearly in the wrong. This is because in as much as it is important to stand for employees and air their views and complaints the workers who misbehave and go completely contrary to the regulations of the work environment should be able to be responsible for their own actions.

Work cited

Woolf, David J. “The Legality of Employee Participation in Unionized Firms: The Saturn Experience and Beyond.” Colum. JL & Soc. Probs. 27 (1993): 557.

Work cited

Cokins, Gary, and Paul Sharman. “Holding managers and employee teams accountable with consequences is now a necessity—not a luxury. This book is a must read to better understand the complex topic of monitoring performance and driving organizations toward achieving strategy.’’.” (2008).

Question 14

What are the three governing assumptions of a simple philosophy of methods improvement?

Methods of improvement have been in place for long and they have been utilized to bring sanity and betterment in the business environment. The three types of assumptions are ontological, epistemological and axiological. Ontological assumption is whereby the idea of multiple realities is brought together and discussed. The best reality which might happen is put into exercise. Epistemological assumptions is whereby there is a belief that a person should make a hypothesis of what adopting a certain method of doing things would work and how each of them would affect the current situation. Axiological assumptions is whereby the values of a person or a people is made known before proceeding takes place.

Work cited

Mitroff, Ian I., and Richard O. Mason. “Business policy and metaphysics: Some philosophical considerations.” Academy of management Review 7.3 (1982): 361-371.

Question 15

Why cannot a budget, once constructed with all eventualities accounted for and all expected costs in place, be considered a preordained, concrete picture of future events?

A budget even though depicting what the managers and the staff of a business expects to happen is not a final draft of what will exactly happen. This is because there is no person who can fully know what might happen within a business environment. Therefore it is only possible for a person to predict but not to know what will happen. However the business environment makes a person predict what will happen which is very essential. Therefore the future a business cannot be fully known but can be predicted.

Work cited

Foster, Tracy A. “Budget planning, budget control, business age, and financial performance in small businesses.” (2017).